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How should I cite the Nuremberg Code in AMA format?

Hi! I'm struggling to cite the Nuremberg Code in AMA format, and I was wondering I could please have some help? My resource is a pdf version of the code provided by my professor. I'm not sure what type of resource I should cite it as - would you consider that a website, a journal article, a legal proceeding, or something else entirely? Thank you very much for any help you can give me!
Last Updated: Jan 18, 2017  |  1607 Views

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Thank you for sending us such an interesting citation question.  The general guideline for citing thorny documents like this is "cite what you see".  The exact elements you include will depend on what is included on the PDF you have in hand.  Generally-speaking, I would view the Nuremberg Code as a government document/report, since that is the form it originally took when recorded from the proceedings of the Nuremberg war crimes trials following World War II.  Originally, the Nuremberg Code was recorded as "PERMISSIBLE MEDlCAL EXPERIMENTS" in Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol. 2, pp. 181-182. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.  Here is a PDF of this book:

The problem is that the passage comprising the Nuremberg Code is reprinted in so many different places, which complicates the citing process.  It was even reprinted in some journals, and in those cases would be cited like a journal article.  If it would be helpful, you could forward the PDF to me and I could take a closer look at how to cite it.  Or, you could possibly find a different version of the Nuremberg Code that would be easier to cite.  For example:

A government document from the NIH:

A webpage from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum:

Here are some sections in the AMA Manual of Style that might prove helpful, keeping in mind that your document is electronic and should be cited as such:

  • 3.12.4 Reference to a Chapter in a Book
  • 3.13.2 Government or Agency Bulletins
  • 3.15.2 Books and Books on CD-ROM
  • 3.15.5 Government/Organization Reports

Hopefully you'll find this information helpful.  Please let us know if we can be of further assistance with this question.


Stephen Buss

Answered by Stephen BussBookmark and Share

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